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Hello and welcome to the HIL for Power Electronicsmodule.
In this first lesson, Converter models, well explain different converter modelling approaches
and introduce some key aspects of using convertercomponents.
Let s start by diving into the converter modellingapproach.
In the third module, we briefly touched onthe topic of a converter.
We saw that converters are modeled using idealswitches, meaning that when they are open,
zero current passes through them and whenthey are closed, there is no voltage drop
For Typhoon HIL devices, real-time HIL capabilitiesare estimated at the level of converters,
based on their converter weight, instead ofby the number of individual switches.
As we mentioned in previous modules, maximumconverter weight is a resource that depends
on your device configuration.
Since converter weight grows non-linearlyrelative to the number of switches in the
topology, there is no exact number for thiswhich can be estimated based solely on the
number of switches.
You may have already noticed one of the bigimpacts this has on converter modeling: there
are no individual semiconductor switches inour core library.
This might be confusing, since they are themost basic building blocks for any converter
topology, so these are usually the first thingto go looking for.
This is because in our library converterscome as highly-optimized, pre-packed components,
meaning that instead of building the convertermodel from scratch using individual switches,
you can instead simply choose your desiredconverter from the Typhoon converter library.
Why does Typhoon HIL takes this approach?
Pre-packing components enables our developersto optimize them for real-time execution,
increasing the simulation accuracy and reducingthe overall load on resources available for
simulation, The runtime optimization logicthat does this is not accessible on an individual
This means that with pre-packed and optimizedcomponents, you can run more high-fidelity
converter models in real-time at lower timestepsthan you could without it.
Since all of our Typhoon converters are preimplemented you don t have to know any FPGA
programming in order to implement your models.
In addition, having converter models pre-implementedon FPGA, only leaves you to compile and load
to HIL, while skipping the often-slow FPGAsynthesis and implementation process.
Luckily, as we already explained, successfulcompilation of the model means that it will
run successfully on the selected HIL device.
This means that in most cases, you can makea very basic model of your desired topology
in our software by dragging and dropping thenecessary converter components, and quickly
find the device and configuration that hasthe available resources you need to compile
the model at your desired timestep.
Of course, since converters are pre-packed,how can you be sure that the specific converter
you need is available?
Luckily, the Typhoon HIL converters librarycontains a large number of converters, covering
the most common power electronics topologies.
The converters on the screen represent justsome of the large number of converter topologies
that can be found in the software.
The full converter list can be found in theConverters documentation listed in the video
If you intend to create a topology which cant be found in library, you can create it by
tying multiple converters together in orderto create topology you want.
This is often done by using the IGBT leg component,which is the smallest building block which
you can use to create custom converters.
For example, if we want to create a Three-phasefour-leg inverter, then you would choose a
device configuration that supports a max weightof at least 4 and then place four IGBT Legs
You can also create custom topologies by selectingan existing converter and disabling particular
switches, forcing them to function only asdiodes.
For example, let s say that you are interestedin having a Three-phase half-controlled rectifier
in your model.
The simplest approach would be to first adda Three Phase Thyristor Rectifier component
in your model.
Then, you would need to adjust this componentin order to make it function as the half-controlled
This can be done through the Switching BlocksSettings, which can be found in Model Settings
section of HIL SCADA or accessed via HIL API.
By disabling all three bottom switches, youforce them to function as diodes instead of
thyristors, forcing the Three phase thyristorto function as a Three-phase half-controlled
If you weren t successful with modelling yourdesired converter topology using the existing
converter components and the switch softwareoverride tricks, we just covered do not help
either, check the Knowledge Bbase articletitled Why can t I access individual switches
from the Schematic Editor library? in theMaterials section.
There might be a tiny chance that your applicationis a good candidate for Typhoon HIL to unlock
the individual switches library for you soyou get all the needed modeling flexibility.
If not, we will happily consider your requestto implement a new converter model.
Up until now, we have only discussed structuralconverter models.
These models consist only of individual switchcomponents interconnected to implement the
circuit topology shown in the documentationof the converter.
For highly demanding topologies consistingof a large number of switches in cascaded
cells, hardware resource utilization and especiallycircuit partitioning can be very challenging.
This is where we apply a behavioral modelingapproach in order to simplify implementation
while still maintaining high fidelity to theexpected converter behavior.
One such example is the MMC leg SwitchingFunction component, which is a suitable alternative
to overcome the circuit partitioning and hardwareresource utilization challenges that would
be encountered by using a regular IGBT legcomponent in a practical MMC application.
If you are interested to see how the MMC legSwitching Function component functions please
check our Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC)with Induction Machine example model.
Its application note is listed in the videodescription, where at the bottom of it, you
ll find a path to the example model locationwithin our software.
Behavioral converter models like these canbe split in two groups.
The first one would be the switching function-typemodels where our MMC converter belongs.
The other group is Average converter models.
This group of converter models is currentlyin development and expected to be released
by the end of 2021.
Now that we have covered the full explanationof the Typhoon modelling approach, we are
ready to look at different ways you can controlconverters inside your model.
This will be shown in the next lesson.
Thank you for your attention.